It has been more than a year since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared 新型冠状病毒肺炎 a global pandemic. 大多数国家都经历了多次全国封锁, 国际旅行限制每周都在改变.
航运业以迄今未预料到的协作水平做出了回应，以保持船只航行, 并游说政府承认海员是关键工人，以确保船员的改变能够发生. 在新的旅行禁令和疫苗护照即将出现之际，这些努力仍在继续.
ICS秘书长Guy Platten回顾了2020年初的事件, as lockdowns began and panic grew in the industry: “We moved quickly to get people talking and setting up regular weekly, 每周两次, 与成员, 社会和福利合作伙伴，如ITF, 国际海事组织、国际劳工组织以及其他联合国机构和欧盟. 让每个人都联系起来并交谈是一个巨大的胜利，因为你可以将问题合理化.”
ICS于2020年1月28日向船东发布了首份新型冠状病毒肺炎指南. 今年2月，Guy Platten率领一个由行业领袖组成的代表团 与世界卫生组织(卫生组织)在日内瓦举行会议 就管理船上健康威胁的最佳做法进行合作.
会议发布了第一份针对航运业的冠状病毒(新型冠状病毒肺炎)指导意见, produced in collaboration with international bodies; WHO, 国际海事组织, ECDC, 和IMHA. 其中包括一系列关于管理口岸入境限制的建议, 以及海员切实可行的保护措施. 随着对新型冠状病毒肺炎了解的更多，已更新了指南. 最新的版本可以是 在这里找到.
Despite massive pressures crew have kept global supply chains moving; essential 个人防护用品, 医疗用品, and food to keep the supermarkets stocked has been delivered while countries came to an effective standstill.
ICS and ITF wrote to UN agencies alerting them to the 机组人员变化危机 on 19 March and ICS and IAPH also highlighted the issue to G20 3月24日.
Stephen棉花, 国际运输工人联合会(ITF)秘书长, 说 that the pandemic highlighted the global nature of the shipping industry and the dependence of labour from the developing world, 谁承受了巨大的压力.
“The pandemic also revealed the resilience and pragmatism of the industry despite the collapse of world order,”他说. “然而, 受害者是无法下船的海员, 有时超过12个月. 许多人没有得到医疗照顾，还有更多的人没有上岸休假. 这确实是一场人道主义灾难.”
ICS brought together members of the shipping industry to ensure crew changes could occur at regular group meetings, 包括冠状病毒战略和福利小组, a Crew Change Taskforce and a fortnightly call with the ILO Special Tripartite Committee of the MLC officers group. ICS also worked with the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) Collaborative Arrangement for the Prevention and Management of Public Health 事件 in Civil Aviation (CAPSCA) on crew change challenges and with the WHO and other UN agencies to push forward work to harmonise policies, 测试, 和认证.
这种合作有助于为行业和政府提供指导. 5月6日，国际海事组织向174个成员国发布了12步计划, providing them with a roadmap to free 海员 from their 新型冠状病毒肺炎 lockdown and allow appropriate exemptions for them to join or leave ships. 最新的版本可以是 在这里找到.
娜塔莉·肖, 就业事务处处长, ICS, 说, “大发黄金版网页版就是让船只继续航行. 所有这些成功往往都是通过安静的谈判取得的. 尽管我们在航运上遇到了种种障碍, 而且重要的是, 海员, 持续. 这使船员付出了巨大的代价.”
提高公众对海员变更困境的认识，ICS 策划了一场海上英雄呐喊会 on 1 May when ships across the world sounded their horns to mark International Workers Day/Labour Day.
因为在政府层面缺乏可见度, shipping has had to create new avenues into governments to lobby for seafarer keyworkers status and the resolution of the 机组人员变化危机.
Guy Platten 说: “A landmark moment was the UK hosting a virtual summit on 9 July on 新型冠状病毒肺炎 and crew change that saw the attendance of 15 countries.在与会国家中，有13个国家承诺为更换船员提供便利.
The submission of Article XXII sent to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Committee of Experts on Conventions prompted another landmark moment: a ruling from the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in December 2020 which found that 各国政府已经侵犯了海员的权利 and failed to comply with several provisions of the Maritime Labour Convention during the 新型冠状病毒肺炎 pandemic. 该联合国机构呼吁各国“毫不拖延地”承认海员是关键工人。. 迄今已有55个国家和2个准成员指定海员为关键工作人员.
“The 机组人员变化危机 is not resolved but has reached a situation where it has been more manageable. 危机仍在继续，所以我们不会放松我们的努力.
Stephen棉花 added: “Governments have an inability to recognise the importance of shipping on every level, 提供食品, 个人防护用品, 很快疫苗. 即使他们想帮忙，机器也不存在. 现在我们有57个国家承认海员是关键工人. 为什么这么少?”
Guy Platten noted industry concerns that crew changes are becoming more difficult as countries ramp up travel restrictions against the spread of new variants. Vaccine passports also pose a potential barrier to crew change as 海员 from developing nations are unlikely to have an opportunity to receive vaccines until July at the earliest.
Most countries with access to vaccines continue to prioritise frontline health workers and age groups most at risk of the virus. 而新加坡已成为第一批优先让海上工人接种疫苗的国家之一, 从港口工人开始, many major seafarer supply countries’ access to vaccines is limited and will depend upon support from the COVAX programme. ICS计算出900,全球超过半数的海员来自发展中国家.
确保海员充分了解可提供的疫苗选择, 并消除关于疫苗的错误信息和谣言, ITF, 国际海事卫生协会(IMHA) ICS和Intertanko正在推出一份实用指南, 海员和船舶接种疫苗, 3月24日.
Efforts are continuing within the industry to ensure 海员 will be safely vaccinated and not put at the back of the queue. Guy Platten 说: “Governments will not be able to vaccinate their citizens without the shipping industry or, 最重要的是, 我们的船员.”
Important inroads with governments and across the maritime supply chain have been made to help resolve individual crew change cases. Platten noted these contacts will stand the industry in good stead for tackling the challenges of decarbonisation and climate change.
斯蒂芬·科顿和弗雷德·肯尼, 导演, 法律及对外事务, 国际海事组织, both also stressed the need for the unprecedented levels of collaboration within the shipping industry to carry on. Stephen棉花说, “Let’s continue to break problems into bitesize challenges and pull on the different skills at the table, recognising that we won’t agree about everything and with mutual respect of everyone’s responsibilities to their own members.”
弗雷德·肯尼, 回应了这一观点:“当我们度过疫情，解决机组人员更换危机时, we will still be faced with the challenge of reduction of GHG emissions and decarbonisation of the industry, 提高安全性，并关注未来船舶运营所需的劳动力. 这将需要同样水平的合作与协调.”